Timeline of Important Events in Finnish History

The timeline is drawn from the book The History of Finland


circa 9000 B.C. Finland emerges from the last Ice Age

c. 8000-9000 B.C. First traces of post-Ice Age habitation

c. 8600-5100 B.C. The Suomusjärvi Culture

c. 3200 - 2300 B.C. The Battle-Axe Culture - the first signs of agriculture

c. 800 - 1100 The Viking Age

c. 1157 Crusade of Prince Erik and Bishop Henry of Sweden into Finland

1227 Prince Jaroslav of Novgorod sends Orthodox missionaries to Karelia

c. 1309 Founding of the city of Turku (Åbo)

1323 Peace of Nöteborg divides Finland between Sweden and Novgorod

1397-1523 The Kalmar Union

1523-60 Reign of King Gustav Vasa

1520s-1593 Lutheran Reformation
1544 Mikael Agricola publishes spelling primer for Finnish language

1548 Mikael Agricola publishes the New Testament in Finnish

1550 Founding of Helsinki

1593 Uppsala Decree formally establishes Lutheranism in the Swedish kingdom

1595 Peace of Teusina between Swedish kingdom and Russia

1596-1597 The War of the Clubs peasant rebellion

1617 Peace of Stolbova between Swedish kingdom and Russia

1640 Foundation of University of Turku

1642 Full Bible published in Finnish

1695-1697 Crop failures and epidemics decimate Finland's population by a third

1700-1721 The Great Northern War

1713-1721 Russian armies occupy Finland

1721 Peace of Nystad between Swedish kingdom and Russia

1741-1743 The Hats' War between Swedish kingdom and Russia

1788-1790 Gustav's War and the Anjala League

1808-1809 The War of Finland, annexation of Finland to Russian Empire

1809 Porvoo Diet, in which Emperor Alexander I of Russia confirms Finland's laws and religion (March 25-July 19)

1812 Helsinki named Finland's new capital

1828 University moved to Helsinki from Turku

1835 Elias Lönnrot publishes The Kalevala

1860 The introduction of the mark as Finland's currency

1863 Language Rescript makes Finnish co-official with Swedish

c. 1890-1914 Finland's artistic Golden Age

1899 February Manifesto reduces Finland's autonomy

1904 Assassination of Governor-General Nikolai Bobrikov

1906 Creation of unicameral Parliament

1914-1918 World War I

1917 Collapse of the Russian monarchy, March 16 (old style, 3 March 1917)

1917 Finland's parliament passes Enabling Act (July)

1917 Bolshevik Revolution, November 7 (new style)

1917 Parliament approves declaration of independence from Russia (December 6)

1918 Civil War (January-May)

1919 Parliament ratifies republican constitution (July)

1920 Peace of Tartu (Dorpat) between Finland and Soviet Russia

1929-1932 Rise and fall of the Lapua Movement

1937 Social Democratic Party and Agrarian League form Red Earth coalition

1939 F.E. Sillanpää wins the Nobel Prize for literature

1939-1940 The Finnish-Soviet Winter War

1941-1944 The War of Continuation against the USSR

1944-1945 The Lapland War against Germany

1945 A.I. Virtanen wins the Nobel Prize in chemistry

1945-1948 Big Three center-left coalition Government

1946-1956 J.K. Paasikivi Finland's president

1948 Finland signs Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance Treaty (YYA Treaty) with USSR

1952 Finland completes payment of war reparations to USSR

1952 Helsinki hosts Olympic summer games

1955 Finland becomes a member of the United Nations and the Nordic Council

1956-1981 Urho Kekkonen Finland's president

1958 Finnish-Soviet Night Frost Crisis (August-December)

1961 Finnish-Soviet Note Crisis (October-November)

1966-1982 Big Three or Popular Front center-left coalition

1975 Conference on Security and Cooperation (CSCE) conference produces Helsinki Accords

1982-1994 Mauno Koivisto Finland's president

1987-1991 Conservative-Social Democratic (Blue-Red) coalition

1990-1994 Finland's economy in depression

1991-1995 Conservative-Center coalition

1992 Finland applies for European Union membership

1994-2000 Martti Ahtisaari is Finland's president

1995 Finland joins European Union

1995-2003 Rainbow coalition government

2000 New constitution
2000-2012 Tarja Halonen Finland's first female president

2006 Rock group Lordi wins Eurovision song contest
2008 Martti Ahtisaari wins Nobel Peace Prize
2011 Far-right anti-immigrant Finns Party becomes third largest party in Parliament
2012 Sauli Niinistö Finland's president
2013 Nokia ceases as producer of mobile telephones
2015 Finns Party becomes second-largest party in Parliament and joins Conservatives and Center Party in government
2019 Social Democratic Party wins Parliamentary election. Coalition government of Social Democrats, Left-Wing Alliance, Center, Greens, and Swedish People's Party.